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United States 
Department of r 
Agriculture *-*»p ,'^ 

Foreign 

Agricultural 

Service 



FAS M-294 



5 ^?^ff 

Mexico's Expanding 
Olive Industry 




•0301 pZir, '^^'y 



8 

'2351 



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Some Key Data on Mexico 

People 

Population: 70 million. 

Geographic distribution: 60 percent urban, 40 percent rural. 

Ethnic distribution: 60 percent Indian-Spanish (Mestizo), 30 percent 

American Indian, 9 percent Caucasian. 
Mexico City's population: 13 million, including Federal District 

(world's largest city). 
Education: Compulsory for 9 years. Literacy rate, 75 percent. 

Economy 

Gross domestic product: $74.3 billion (1977). 

Inflation rate: 17 percent (1978), 18 percent (1977), 29 percent 

(1976). 
Unemployment rate: 19 percent (1978), 20 percent (1977), 25 

percent (1976). 
Employment: 20 million, with 800,000 entrants annually. | 

Exports: $5.8 billion (f.o.b.) in 1978; $3.4 billion to U.S.; $1 billion 

in agricultural items. 
Imports: $7.2 billion (c.i.f.) in 1978; $4.5 bUlion from United 

States; $900 million in agricultural items. 

Agriculture 

Total land area: 1 97 million hectares. 

Forests: 73 million hectares (37 percent). 

Pasture: 68 million hectares (35 percent). 

Mountains and deserts: 28 million hectares (14 percent). 

Crop area: 28 million hectares (14 percent). 

Irrigated area: 5 million hectares (3 percent). 

Leading crops in 1978 (hectares): Corn (8.1 million), dry beans (2 
million), sorghum (1.1 million), wheat (850,000), sugarcane 
(445,000), safflower (370,000), cotton (354,000), coffee 
(320,000), barley (240,000), sesameseed (240,000). 

Leading fruits and vegetables in 1978 (hectares): Oranges (168,000), 
tomatoes (71,000), potatoes (58,000), peppers (54,000), bananas 
(50,000), limes (44,000), grapes (40,000), watermelons (24,000), 
cantaloupes (23,000), onions (20,000), and olives (5,000). 



Front cover: Harvesting olives in Baja California. 



NEW MEXICO 



/■u/imSon/oT'omojj'^Chapulrep.cV ^'S^^ OESVtRm **fp5> 

Puerto Santo Tomaslf • Santo Tomas '^ \t^ it.^^^ *a 




Foreword 



Mexico's olive industry is expanding at a rapid pace, spurred by accelerating production 
of table olives in the northwestern states of Sonora and Baja California. Growers in these 
states are increasing plantings and expanding processing capacity at an unprecedented 
rate. 

Surplus production for export is developing, and, in years of U.S. crop shortfalls, some 
U.S. processors and distributors are importing table olives from Mexico to maintain their 
market outlets. As Mexico's olive industry expands, both raw and processed olive 
products will be exported. 

Presently, most of Mexico's foreign trade in olives consists of shipments along the 
western U.S. -Mexican border. However, as Mexico's production mounts, the outlook for 
the 1980's and 1990's is for a sharp rise in exports of table olives and olive oil to the 
United States and Canada. 

The purpose of this report is to describe Mexico's olive industry and the factors 
underlying its impact on the U.S. olive industry. The author is indebted to numerous 
Government and industry officials for information and assistance. Special appreciation is 
extended to David I. Rosenbloom, Assistant U.S. Agricultural Attache, Mexico City; 
James H. Baldas, District Director, USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 
Plant Protection and Quarantine, Tijuana, Mexico; and Lie. Sergio Miranda Sotelo, 
Economic Officer, U.S. Consulate, Hermosillo, Mexico, for accompanying the author on 
his survey and providing information for this report. 



^,^4!!,^ ^ ,^^^^^^i^ 



Gilbert E. Sindelar 

Director, Horticultural and Tropical Products Division, 

Commodity Programs, 

Foreign Agricultural Service 



April 1980 



Contents 



Page 



Summary 1 

Introduction 1 

Area and Varieties 2 

Yields 2 

Cultural Practices 3 

Harvesting 4 

Production 4 

Processing 4 

Marketing 5 

Foreign Trade 6 

Outlook 6 

Tables 7 



Mexico's Expanding Olive Industry 



By L.P. Bill Emerson, Jr. 
Horticultural and Tropical Products Division, Commodity Programs, FAS 



Summary 



Mexico is expanding its olive industry substanti- 
ally, and may become a major world producer and 
exporter of table olives and olive oil sometime in the 
1980's and continuing into the 1990's. 

Major factors in the industry's expansion program 
include large-scale plantings of olive trees (particu- 
larly in desert areas of Baja California and Sonora), 
construction of new processing plants, and enlarge- 
ment of existing processing facilities. 

Although Mexico has never been a significant 
supplier of table olives and olive oil to the United 
States, producers plan to export a substantial share of 
their enlarged output to this market in 5-10 years, 
displacing a significant share of U.S. imports of table 
olives and olive oil from Spain and Italy. Production 
facilities for this purpose are being extensively up- 
graded. 

The United States is a net importer of table olives 
and ohve oil. In 1979, 36,926 metric tons* of table 
olives and 27,306 tons of oil, valued at $76 million 
and $45 million, respectively, were imported. Spain 
supplies over 80 percent of U.S. imports of table 
olives, the bulk of which are in the form of so-called 
"Spanish olives"— brined green fruit, often pitted and 
stuffed with pimentos. Italy and Spain supply 50 and 
40 percent, respectively, of U.S. olive oil imports. 

Introduction 

Olives are well adapted to the arid climate of 
northern Mexico and have been grown there for more 
than 450 years. They were introduced to the country 
by Franciscan and Jesuit missionaries shortly after 
the conquest by Cortes. Missionaries brought olive 
seeds and cuttings from Spain and developed into 
what has become known as the Mission variety (Oleo 
europaea, var. Mission) that was planted throughout 
Mexico. 

The first plantings are attributed to Brother Martin 
de Valencia, who in 1524 planted some trees near 
Mexico City. Some of these trees are still producing 
olives. Later, commercial olive groves were estab- 
hshed in the states of Guanajuato and Michoacan, 
particularly in the Apatzingan area. During the ensu- 
ing two and a half centuries, olive production rose to 
a point where it fulfilled domestic demand for olive 



'Note: All tons are metric unless otherwise specified. 



oil and permitted shipments to other Spanish colo- 
nies-in competition with Spain's olive oil shipments. 

This competition had become so important by 
1774 that King Carlos III of Spain issued an order 
prohibiting further plantings of olive trees in Mexico. 
However, competition from existing ohve growers 
continued, and in 1777 Carlos issued a decree order- 
ing destruction of all olive groves except those of 
church property, thus ending Mexico's first com- 
mercial olive industry. 

Today, the Mexican olive industry is centered in 
Baja California and the neighboring state of Sonora. 
Olive groves in this region owe their origin to Father 
Eusebio Francisco Kino, a legendary Jesuit who 
founded many missions in Mexico's Pacific Northwest 
during the 17th century. Under his leadership, cattle 
ranching and grain farming were started, while Mis- 
sion olives (and Mission variety wine grapes) were 
planted to produce olive oil. Many of these original 
Mission trees are still producing, particularly in Baja 
California. 

In 1769, during an expedition by Don Joseph de 
Galvez to rediscover the port of Monterrey, Fran- 
ciscan priests brought olive seeds and cuttings to the 
San Diego Mission from San Bias, Nayarit. This 
proved to be the origin of the present-day olive 
industry in California. 

Olives are virtually the only commercial crop that 
will grow without irrigation in the deserts of Sonora 
and Baja California (although most olive groves are 
irrigated to produce larger sized fruit). The olive areas 
in northern Sonora— around the cities of Caborca and 
Hermosillo -receive only 100-200 millimeters (4-8 
inches) of annual rainfall. Baja California's olive 
area— principally along the northern Pacific coast— has 
an average of 200-300 millimeters (8-12 inches) of 
annual precipitation. 

Sonora's rainfall usually arrives during July and 
August, while Baja California's rainy season is from 
December through March. Sonora has light frosts in 
the winter and extremely hot summers, while Baja 
California's coastal areas have moderate temperatures 
year-round. 

Adverse weather-particularly in Baja California-is 
a significant production problem. Lack of rainfall and 
warm winters frequently cut crop yield* to half of 
normal levels in Baja California. For this reason, olive 
production is shifting to Sonora and to cooler parts 
of Baja California, where irrigation water is available 
and winter temperatures are below 10 C (50 F), 
which is necessary for olive trees to form flowers. 



Area and Varieties 

Approximately 95 percent of Mexico's olive area is 
centered in Baja California and Sonora. Baja Cali- 
fornia has approximately 5,000 hectares of bearing 
olive groves and another 1,000-2,000 of nonbearing 
trees. Sonora has 2,000 hectares planted but only 
about 400 hectares of fruit-bearing trees. Other minor 
production zones are in the States of Durango, 
Guanajuato, and Aquascalientes. 

Planted area in Baja California expanded at an 
average 100 hectares annually during 1975-79, while 
Sonora's annual plantings were 300-500 hectares.^ If 
these planting rates continue as expected, Mexico's 
olive producing area will exceed that in the United 
States in 10-20 years. 

Because Baja California's coastal valleys frequently 
have warm winter weather— which dramatically re- 
duces olive production— new plantings there have 
been in the cooler inland areas. Sonora's new plant- 
ings are in new irrigation areas, primarily around 
Caborca. 

Today, table olive varieties planted in Mexico 
follow the same pattern as those of Southern Cali- 
fornia. Until the Mexican Revolution of 1910-20, the 
Mission olive was the predominant type planted in 
that country for table use and oil extraction. Al- 
though the Mission variety continues to be the best 
variety for oil extraction and continues to be grown 
in Baja California primarily for this purpose, it has 
been largely replaced as a table olive variety because 
of its small-sized fruit. 

Since the 1920's, plantings have been primarily of 
the Manzanillo variety, although there have been 
some trial plantings of other varieties. Manzanillo 
fruits are larger than Missions and have a much higher 
flesh-to-pit ratio; moreover, they are easily processed 
and have an oil content high enough to warrant 
extraction from small, frozen, or culled fruits. 

During the late 1960's, commercial plantings of 
Sevillanos (Queens, or Gordales) started because of 
the substantial premiums paid by processors for these 
very large fruits. 

Later, however, Mexican processors found this 
variety more difficult to process, and its fruit quality 
was often somewhat lower than that of the Mission 
and Manzanillo varieties (although with proper treat- 
ment a satisfactory table olive product can be ob- 
tained). Also, the yields are generally lower than 
those of the other varieties, and the oil content is not 
high enough to justify oil extraction. 

For these reasons, area devoted to Sevillano is 
relatively small compared wdth that of Manzanillos, 
with plantings located only near a few processors in 
Baja California that produce large-size, specialty type 
olives— Mammoth, Giant, Jumbo, Colossal, or Super- 
Colossal grade sizes. 



^The removal of old olive trees offsets some of these area 
increases in Baja California. 



The two other principal table varieties grown in 
California— Ascalano and Barouni— are not com- 
mercially grown in Mexico. The Barouni variety, 
grown primarily in northern California, does not yield 
well in Mexico because of the hot cUmate, while the 
Ascalano has very tender fruit that is easily bruised 
and not suited to green pickling for Spanish-type 
olives because of salt-shrivel during fermentation. 

During the 1980's, the Manzanillo variety will 
continue to account for the bulk of the new plant- 
ings. Sevillano plantings may also increase as demand 
for large-size table olives rises. However, processors 
are more interested in obtaining new varieties that are 
suitable for both table and oil use and that grow well 
with minimal irrigation. 

Olive trees are generally planted on the square 
system, with rows at 90-degree angles and trees- 
averaging 10 meters apart-planted 100 per hectare. 
Earlier plantings were 6-8 meters between trees, but 
this was much too close and yields from these trees 
declined rapidly because of shading on bearing sur- 
faces and root competition. Standard planting dis- 
tances vary from 9 to 1 2 meters between trees, with 
Manzanillo trees planted the closest together. Mis- 
sions and Sevillanos are spaced further apart. 

Plantings are also made in accordance with the 
type of irrigation used. Many of Sonora's plantings 
are in 10-by-lO -meter squares with raised contour 
levees so that each tree can be flood-irrigated with 
minimal water loss. With the furrow system of irriga- 
tion, the channels are laid out before planting the 
trees. However, when the drip irrigation system or the 
movable, drag hose line system (sprinkler head irriga- 
tion method) are utilized, the groves are generally 
planted first and the watering system installed after- 
ward. 

Yields 

Until 1977, yields generally were highest in the 
large olive groves of northern Baja California. How- 
ever, yields in Sonora increased sharply in 1 978 and 
1979 as bearing trees 20-30 years of age came into 
full production and intensive cultural practices began 
to pay dividends. 

Baja California's bearing trees range in age from 10 
to 400 years, but most are 30 to 50 years old-the 
optimal bearing age if trees are well maintained. Some 
Mission orchards 200 to 400 years old still bear 
above-average crops, particularly in years of heavy 
rainfall or where frequent irrigation is available. At 
the Baja CaHfornia Mission de Santo Thomas (where 
all trees are under constant ditch irrigation from local 
springs), 300-year-old trees average 120 kilograms 
(250 pounds) of olives per tree, compared with 45 
kilograms (100 pounds) for 20-year-old trees. 

In years with favorable weather, such as in 1971, 
Baja California's overall yields have averaged 40 kilo- 
grams per tree, or 3.2 tons per hectare. However, 



during 1973-76 period, warm winters and below- 
average rainfall resulted in yields of only about 1.5 
tons per hectare, or 14 kilograms per tree. Neverthe- 
less, many orchards in Baja California are approaching 
an optimal bearing age of 30-50 years and heavy 
rainfall and favorable temperatures in 1979 caused 
yields to revive to at least 20 kUograms per tree, or 
over 2 tons per hectare. 

In Sonora, yields are also advancing with the 
increase in age of the olive groves and now are the 
highest in Mexico. During the 1 960's, production per 
tree averaged only 5 kilograms, but average yields 
now exceed 80 kilograms per tree. Sonora's yields 
jumped from 1 to 8 tons per hectare in 1977 as the 
new orchards came into full production and advanced 
technology imported from the United States was 
utilized. In well-maintained older olive areas, yields 
are about 100 kilograms per tree, or 10 tons per 
hectare (4 tons per acre), which is near average yields 
in the United States. 

Sonora's yields now are about four times higher 
than Baja California's yields— a result of the adoption 
of U.S. production practices in Sonora-while Baja 
California continues to use less efficient cultural 
practices. Although Sonora's yields are now 8-9 tons 
per hectare (about 3,5 tons per acre), this is still well 
below California's 10-20 ton yields. Sonora's growers 
expect average yields to continue rising and reach 
U.S. levels by 1990 as their trees reach mature age. 

Cultural Practices 

Cultural practices are often the most important 
factor affecting production— particularly in Sonora, 
where intensive use of U.S. technology boosts yields 
substantially. Irrigation, fertilization, cultivation, 
pruning, fruit thinning, and spraying practices have an 
important impact on crop production, along with 
rainfall patterns, winter temperatures, and the natural 
tendency of olive trees to bear alternatively heavy 
and light crops. 

The timing and amount of irrigation water used is 
critical in producing a crop of large-size olives for 
table use. In Baja California, orchards are generally 
irrigated by ditch flood, fixed high-volume sprinkler 
heads, or low-volume, movable drag hose lines. 
Irrigation in Baja California (using any of these 
methods) generally is performed two to four times 
annually, with younger trees receiving additional 
waterings. However, most of Baja California's trees 
are on dryland farms, which often accounts for the 
low yields in this region. 

Olive groves in Sonora are usually irrigated from 
four to eight times annually, using flood irrigation 
with contour levees, or with ditch irrigation. Older 
olive groves are flooded four times a year, twice in 
the spring, and twice in the early fall, while younger 
trees are irrigated about eight times a year to pro- 
mote plant growth. 



Drip irrigation- the most efficient water usage 
system -is increasing in use because of the rising cost 
of obtaining irrigation water. Drip waterings are 
applied one to five times monthly— depending on the 
weather, phase of the growing season, and age of the 
trees. 

Total water usage in Sonora's olive orchards is 
generally 3,500-4,500 cubic meters (2.5-3 acre-feet) 
per hectare annually, while in Baja California, water 
usage varies widely, generally from zero to 3,500 
cubic meters (zero-2.5 acre-feet) per hectare. 

Water may cost $80-$ 100 per hectare ($30-$40 
per acre) if it is obtained from the Mexican Govern- 
ment, although most irrigation water comes from 
private wells. A deep weU costs about $20,000 to drill 
and the equipment may last 10 to 20 years. These 
wells irrigate 50-100 hectares under drip irrigation, 
but only 30-50 hectares under ditch or flood irriga- 
tion. 

Cultivation practices usually entail the disking in of 
winter weeds, floating or harrowing, and furrow- 
ing-out after every second or third irrigation during 
the summer. The soil is disked and floated prior to 
spraying or harvesting if the weed cover interferes 
with these operations. Disking and harrowing costs 
are roughly $30 and $20 per hectare, respectively, 
with tractor and equipment usage being the major 
part of this cost. Small orchards generally omit this 
practice, while large operations disk and harrow to 
make water usage more efficient. 

Pruning is critically important to mature bearing 
trees to boost yields and minimize the natural tend- 
ency for olives to produce alternately light and heavy 
crops. Nonbearing trees are also pruned every other 
year to develop good limb structure that can sustain 
heavy crops and resist strong winds without limb 
breakage. Normal pruning costs about $20 per hec- 
tare ($8 per acre), with labor accounting for virtually 
all this cost. 

Alternative bearing is a major problem for table 
olive producers in both Mexico and the United States, 
and has a direct impact on profits. In years of bumper 
crops, for example, the fruits may be so small at 
maturity that they are not suitable for table olives 
and are left on the tree for later harvesting as oil 
olives. 

Fruit thinning in Mexico is normally performed by 
hand. However, large orchards usually are spray 
thinned (if need be) with the hormone naphthalene- 
acetic acid (NAA), which increases the normal im- 
mature fruit drop. Thinning by hand is generally 
performed from mid-June to early July, while spray- 
thinning is done during late May to early June. Hand 
thinning costs about $50 per hectare ($20 per acre), 
with labor accounting for most of the cost. 

Mexico's large-scale growers indicate that thinning 
of excessive fruit provides the following benefits; 

• Reduces the tendency for alternative bearing; 

• Increases average yields over a period of years; 



• Produces larger fruit with greater flesh-to-pit 
ratio; 

• Iircreases the oil content of the fruit; 

• Promotes earlier fruit maturity with less olive 
shrivel; 

• Reduces limb breakage and enlarges the produc- 
tion of more fruiting wood for the next season's crop. 

Fertilizers are applied in the winter to stimulate 
flower development and enhance the fruit set. .A.bout 
45 kilograms per hectare (40 lb per acre, or 0.5-1.0 lb 
per tree) of nitrogen fertilizers are applied in Decem- 
ber or January. If manure is available, it is applied in 
the fall. After heavy bearing— when lower yields are 
expected for the next crop— nitrogen fertilizers are 
often applied in larger volume to offset the alternate- 
year bearing characteristic. 

Most inorganic fertilizers cost $300-5400 per ton 
and are supplied by PEMEX and FERTIMEX (Mexi- 
can firms associated with the national Government). 

Insect pests and diseases in Mexico are similar— if 
not identical— to those that plague olive trees in the 
United States. The three major pests are olive scale 
(Parlatoria oleae [Colvee]), oleander or ivy scale 
{Aspidiotus hederae [Vallot]), and the black scale 
{Saissetia oleae [Bern]), which are treated with the 
same oil-based insecticide sprays commonly used in 
California (i.e., malathion and parathion). Spraying 
costs about S50 per hectare (S20 per acre), depending 
on the extent of infestation. 

The three primary diseases of Mexico's olives are 
identical to those of California: Peacock spot (Cj'c/o- 
conium oleaginum Cast.), olive knot (Bacterium 
savastanoi E.F.S.), and the well-known Verticillium 
alboati-um R. and B. Proper pruning and spraying 
with fungicides, such as Benlate and Faltan, controls 
most of the peacock spot problems; olive knot is 
controlled by removing the galls or knots, Verticil- 
lium is controlled by uprooting diseased trees and 
prohibiting the planting near olive groves of alterna- 
tive host plants such as cotton, tomatoes, potatoes, 
and other vegetables. 



Harvesting 



Olives for table use are harvested from mid- 
September to mid-November, and olives for oil are 
usually harvested 1 or 2 months later, depending on 
weather, variety, and needs of the canneries. Harvest- 
ing begins when the fruit color changes from dark 
green to a light green-straw yellow and the flesh 
becomes soft. With bumper crops, growers generally 
spot-pick the largest and ripest fruit, then harvest the 
remainder as oil olives. Some growers pick over the 
olive groves from three to five times, taking only the 
larger, mature olives. The small fruit is left until 
January, when the oil content reaches its maximum 
level; oil content increases sharply from September to 
January . 



Most large olive grove owners in Sonora sell their 
fruit on the tree with the processors providing the 
harvest labor. In contrast, the majority of the trees in 
Baja California are in small backyard orchards, and 
the growers and their families pick and deliver the 
olives to the processing plants. 

Harvesting is the largest component in the cost of 
production for most olive growers. Two to five 
workers, skDled in using ladders and picking only the 
ripe fruit, are required to harvest the fruit from a 
hectare of olive trees. SkUled workers earn about S8 
per day, while farm workers garner $6 a day— the 
minimum wage. Depending on location and time 
involved, the cost of harvesting 1 hectare of olives 
varies between SI 00 and S200. 

Long-distance hauling of raw fruit to the process- 
ing plant is a serious problem for growers in Baja 
California because of the rapid deterioration of fruit 
quality between the time of harvest and brine storage. 
Baja California's mountainous terrain and limited 
road system can cause shipping problems, while So- 
nora has an adequate road network. The fruit is 
shipped to processors immediately after harvesting, 
and growers often sustain financial loss if the crop is 
not in brine storage within 1 2 hours after being 
picked. Some growers and processors have fruit 
shipped at night to avoid deterioration from "sweat- 
ing" or "heating," while others provide brine storage 
close to orchard centers. 



Production 

The production level of olives in Mexico during 
1974-76 was relatively low, averaging only 8,400 tons 
annually because of adverse weather conditions. How- 
ever, the 1979 crop was up sharply to 14,000 tons, of 
which 10,000 tons were harvested in northern Baja 
California, 450 tons in the southern part of the state, 
and 3,500 tons in Sonora.'' 

In both Baja California and Sonora, growers garner 
about 9 pesos per kilogram (US S395 per ton). In 
Sonora, the average orchard yields 8.5 tons per 
hectare, valued at $3,400, while in Baja California an 
orchard may average 2 tons per hectare, valued at 
S800. Although Sonora's groves cost more to main- 
tain because of intensive cultural practices, the higher 
crop value per hectare compensates for the higher 
cost of production. 



Processing 



There are seven olive processing plants in Baja 
California— five producing both fruit and oil and two 
producing only oil. Three of the five table-oUve 



'The 1978 and 1979 production estimates are not official 
statistics from the Mexican government, but are based upon 
reports from the trade. 



processors are packing Spanish green olives in glass 
jars for retail distribution, while the other two sell 
olives in bulk to bottling companies for repacking in 
retail-size containers. 

During recent years, about 20 percent of the 
output of Baja California's olive processors has been 
in the form of oil and 80 percent as table olives 
(finished-product basis). Generally, only one-third to 
one-half of Baja California's olive crop is suitable for 
fruit production and the rest is crushed for oil. 
Although oUve oil is pressed from overripe and cuUed 
fruit not suitable for table use, a high-quality, low- 
acid virgin cold-pressed oil can be obtained. The best 
oil yields range from 17 to 21 percent by weight, but 
the average is 15 percent. 

Because Sonera's output of olives hds been rela- 
tively small, the growers there were entirely depen- 
dent on processors in Baja California for a market 
outlet until 1978. However, olive growers in the 
Caborca area of Sonora have recently formed a 
producer group, the Association of Olive Producers of 
Caborca, and have established an olive processing 
plant to meet their expanding needs. This processing 
operation primarily produces brined table olives of 
the Spanish green style, while substandard fruit is 
crushed for oil. 

Of the 1978 Baja California olive crop of 7,000 
tons,^ processors produced about 500 tons of oil and 
3,000 tons of table olives. In that year, Sonora's crop 
was sold to processors in Baja California and included 
in their output of finished products. However, start- 
ing in 1979, Sonora's crop is being processed pri- 
marily in Caborca. 

Mexico's green brined table olives are similar tq 
California's black table olives, except that the Mexi- 
can product is not oxidated to turn black as is the 
case in California. The brined olives are processed in 
the same manner as the black ripe olives, with similar 
cooking times and temperatures, and canned in the 
same brine solution. Mexico's green and California's 
black brined olives are available whole, pitted, or 
stuffed. 

Mexico also has a type of Spanish green olive 
processed by neutralization, leaching, and fermenta- 
tion. Spanish-style olives are prepared from fully 
developed (but not ripe, or black) fruit, which is light 
green to straw-yeUow in color. 

Upon arrival at the processing plant, raw olives are 
washed, sorted, and stored temporarily in 5-liter 
buckets containing about 30 kilograms (65 pounds) 
of fruit and brine solutions. Olives are then taken 
from temporary storage and soaked in a curing 
solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide (usually 
for 4 to 1 2 hours) to remove most of the fruit's bitter 
flavor. Lye penetration is carefully observed by fre- 
quently cutting fruit to the pit with a knife, with the 
depth of penetration indicated by the yellowish-green 
color of the lye-treated flesh. 

After sufficient lye penetration, the excess caustic 
solution is washed and leached from the olives by 



several applications of cold water during a 24-to-48- 
hour period. The fruit is then placed in 1- or 2-ton 
containers (called boteUas in Mexico or bottles in 
California), covered with a salt brine solution, and 
fermented for a period of from 2 to 1 2 months. 

Fermentation takes approximately 2 months in 
warm weather and up to 12 months in cool weather. 
During the fermentation or curing process, the olives 
become firm, salty, and light yellowish green in color 
and take on the characteristic flavor and aroma of the 
Spanish green olive. When fermentation is complete, 
the containers are drained of fluids, completely filled 
wdth new brine that includes a preservative, then 
sealed and stored until needed. Only a few processors 
market olives in the cloudy, used brine, which has a 
richer and more subtly complex flavor than the 
colorless new brine, because Mexican consumers pre- 
fer the clear brine. 

Olive processors are beginning to produce 
Spanish-style olives that are pitted with equipment 
imported from California and stuffed wdth locally 
produced minced pimentos and occasionally pearl 
onions. Some are also sold pitted but not stuffed. 
However, most olives are marketed in the inexpensive 
unpitted form. 

Presently, Mexico has an annual processing ca- 
pacity of 5,000 tons of fruit and 1 ,500 tons of oU. By 
1985, processors expect to double these capacities to 
10,000 tons of fruit and 3,000 tons of oil. In the late 
1980's this processing capacity is expected to reach 
15,000 tons of fruit and 5,000 tons of oil. Much of 
the expansion is expected to be in specialty table- 
olive products. 

Processors are undertaking significant moderniza- 
tion programs and are also installing new pressing 
equipment for oil outturn. Generally, older olive 
pressing machines produce 15 tons of oil during a 
16-hour cycle, using 4,000 p.s.i. (pounds per square 
inch) of pressure. The new equipment turns out 
40-50 tons in a 16-hour period, utilizing 15,000 p.s.i. 
of pressure. 

Although black olives are not produced on a 
regular commercial basis in Mexico at the present 
time, most processors plan to buy oxidation and 
other equipment to produce black olives in the near 
future. Several processors expect to be producing 
substantial quantities of black table olives in 3-5 years 
and marketing them as part of their line of specialty 
olive products. 



Marketing 



Processors market about half of their table olives 
as unpitted fruit, vwth the bulk of the remainder sold 
pitted and stuffed with pimentos. Some fruit is 
marketed pitted, unstuffed. However, because of the 
large supply of relatively low-priced locally grown 
pimentos, most processors have the pitted olives 
stuffed to realize higher sales value for the product. 




1. This olive grove near Caborca, Sonora, draws sustenanc 
gravity-flow irrigation water. 

2. Up to 50 tons of olive oil can be produced in two 8-hou 
from presses such as this. 

3. Oil olives ready for the press. 

4. Table olives in temporary brine solution. 

5. Fermentation botellas, each containing 1 to 2 tons of olives. 
During fermentation, the brine solution is changed regularly. 

6. A moment of rest for a worker at a processing plant. 

7. Black olives for oil are examined on arrival at the plant. 

8. Workers on a processing line for table olives. 

9. Spanish-style table olives and olive oil products at an ejido in 
Baja California. 

10. Inspecting table olives in fermentation botellas in Sonora. 

11. Manzanillo olive trees planted within contour levees in 
Sonora. 

12. Workers at a Sonora processing plant sorting olives of table- 
fruit quality. 



Mexico uses California's grades for Spanish-style 
olives, which also apply to California-style fruit. Most 
are Grade B (or choice), some are Grade A (or fancy), 
and a few are Grade C (or standard). Factors deter- 
mining grade include color, uniformity of size, ab- 
sence of defects, and character— firmness, crispness, 
texture, and the condition of the epidural tissue. 

Mexico's olives usually are sized as small (1 22-140 
olives per pound), medium (105-121 count), or large 
(91-104 count), although some are sized as extra large 
(76-90 count) and mammoth (65-75 count). Olives 
are sized before and after processing so that a uni- 
form product can be produced. 

Most olive oil is marketed as table (virgin) oil, with 
consumers preferring the lighter color grades of low- 
acid, cold-pressed oil. Overall acidity and fatty acid 
content of the oil varies tremendously from one 
location to another and from one year to the next. 
Since only affluent Mexicans buy olive oil, they tend 
to buy according to brand, rather than price. 

Processors in Baja California and Sonora sell most 
of their output to wholesalers in central Mexico. 
Mexico City, Guadalajara, Tijuana, and Monterrey 
are, in descending order of importance, the leading 
markets for table olives and olive oil. However, 
Mexican processors are exploring the possibilities of 
exporting table olives and oil to the United States 
through California's olive processors and distributors. 



Foreign Trade 



The foreign trade sector of Mexico's olive industry 
is-despite its relatively small size— important to the 
U.S. oUve industry because of its location and rapid 
expansion. 

Mexico currently exports olives to the U.S. market 
on an irregular basis. Annual exports have amounted 
to only about 300 tons of table olives, valued at 
$50,000 during years of U.S. crop shortfalls. 

Until the 1970's, Mexico imported table olives and 
olive oil— principally from Spain -to supplement its 
domestic production. Recently, however, as olive 
output has increased in Sonora and Baja California, 
Mexico has become a net exporter of olives. 

Nevertheless, Mexico's exports of table fruit and 
olive oil are still small relative to overseas shipments 
from Spain, Greece, and Italy. 

Mexico's olive producers have made some ship- 
ments of fresh and unprocessed olives in brine to the 
United States, but generally Mexico's raw and brined 
table fruit has been purchased by U.S. processors and 
distributors only when California's products are in 
short supply. 



During such times, U.S. processors go to Mexico 
and buy olives on the trees or directly from Baja 
California processors. However, these shipments prob- 
ably will rise sharply as Mexico's olive production 
increases and the fruit quahty improves. 

Mexico has exported some pitted and stuffed 
green olives. Such processed shipments usually en- 
counter strong competition from Spain's exports to 
the United States. 

Nevertheless, as Mexico's table olive quality im- 
proves, its location advantage over Spain in shipping 
to the United States will probably aid in displacing 
some of Spain's olive exports to the United States. 

Mexico does not export significant amounts of 
olive on, as this commodity normally goes directly to 
the expanding domestic market. Sometimes, Mexico 
imports oUve oil from Spain to satisfy demand when 
domestic production is at low levels. However, Mexi- 
co's olive oil output in the future should expand 
sharply and some of this additional production may 
be channeled into the export market, displacing 
European exports to the U.S. market. 



Outlook 

As olives are one of the few crops that grow well 
in the deserts of Sonora and Baja California with little 
or no irrigation, production is expected to expand 
sharply as growers increase plantings. Mexico's total 
olive area and production are expected to double in 
the 1980's and triple during the 1990's. Although 
limited water supplies will keep average olive yields— 
particularly in Baja California— below those of the 
United States (where all trees are irrigated fre- 
quently), it is this water restriction that will encour- 
age Mexico's growers to change from such high- 
water-usage crops as grains and cotton to olives. 

Solely on the basis of the entry into production of 
the present number of nonbearing trees, production 
could rise to 25,000 tons by 1985 and more than 
50,000 tons by 1990. The expected rise in produc- 
tion, combined with the growing investment in pro- 
cessing facilities, will result in increasing supplies of 
table olives and olive oil in Mexico that are not 
expected to be absorbed by the domestic market. 
Thus, there will be surplus finished products to be 
exported— probably to the United States if U.S. prices 
are moderately above Mexico's. Production of table 
olives and oO from northwest Mexico will then be in 
greater direct competition with California's olive in- 
dustry. 



Olives: Production, Value, and Utilization, California, 1963-79 





Production' 


Season 

average 

price 

per ton' 


Value 


Utilization 


Year 


Crushed 
for oil 


Canned 


Other' 




1 000 
Short tons Dollars ,', , 

dollars 

57,000 198.00 11,286 




1963 


7.500 39.100 9.600 


1964 

1965 


54,000 139.00 7,506 6,200 37,500 9,400 
50,000 219.00 10,950 4,300 37,800 7,300 


1966 


63,000 241.00 15,183 4,800 45,500 11,900 


1967 


14,000 384.00 5,376 1,470 10,230 2,000 


1968 


86 000 368.00 31648 4,600 62,800 18,000 


1969 


70,000 329.00 23,030 5,200 51,700 12,500 


1970 


52,000 247.00 12,844 4,100 39,200 8,100 


1971 


55,000 148.00 8,140 4,900 39,600 9,800 


1972 


24,200 415.00 10 043 700 20,000 3,300 


1973 


70,000 392.00 27,440 4,300 54,300 10,700 


1974 


58 500 434 00 25 389 3 1 00 46 700 7 800 


1975 


67,000 336.00 22 512 3 800 53 300 9 000 


1976 


80,000 330.00 26 400 3 700 65 500 10 200 


1977 


43,000 403.00 17,329 2,300 32.300 7,800 


1978 


126 000 303 00 38 178 7 300 99 100 18 800 


1979" . 


59 000 .398 00 73 482 9 900 59 300 3 400 

















Production Is the quantity sold or utilized. Quantities processed are priced at the equivalent processing plant door level, 
'includes Spanish, Greek, and Sicilian styles, and chopped, minced, brined, and other cures. ''Preliminary. 

Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service — Crop Reporting Board. About 40 gallons of oil are obtained from 1 ton of 
olives in California. Data for 1944-62 \n Agricultural Statistics, 1972, table 339. 



Olives: U.S. Imports, 1974/75-1978/79 (Nov. -Oct.) 

(Metric Tons) 

Item 1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 

Olives, fresh: 

Greece — — 11 

Mexico — — — 

Spain — — — 

Other 3 - - 

Total 3 - 11 

Olives, in brine, excluding ripe and pitted, 

green in color, canned: 

Greece 1,553 2,035 2,575 

Mexico — — — 

Spain 2 11 2 

Other 38 206 275 

Total 1,593 2,252 2,852 

Olives, in brine, not ripe: 

Greece 423 391 436 

Mexico — — — 

Spain 4,638 4,975 4,421 

Other 89 186 186 

Total 5,150 5,552 5,043 

Olives, in brine, ripe, not pitted, green in 

color, canned: 

Greece 189 247 361 

Mexico — — — 

Spain 18 - 1 

Other 51 60 45 

Total 258 307 407 

Olives, in brine, ripe, not pitted, NES: 

Greece 42 58 60 

Mexico — — — 

Spain 291 417 160 

Other 25 49 40 

Total 358 524 260 

Olives, in brine, pitted: 

Greece 7 11 13 

Mexico 59 90 - 

Spain 2,196 2,091 2,204 

Other 41 104 103 

Total 2,303 2,296 2,320 

Olives, in brine, stuffed: 

Greece - 58 28 

Mexico 69 4 — 

Spain 23,888 29,415 27,167 

Other 458 169 172 

Total 24,415 29,646 27,367 



1977/78 



1978/79 



1,791 

59 

103 



1,953 



6,413 



283 

9 
62 



354 



20 

126 
36 



182 



2,711 
149 



2,863 



6 

33,892 
77 



33,975 



13 

1 



14 



1,327 

5 
173 



1,505 



576 


387 


329 


224 


5,228 


3,242 


280 


186 



4,039 



303 
4 

18 



325 



30 

129 
47 



206 



25 

4,168 
36 



4,229 



21,879 
191 



22,072 



(Continued) 



Olives: U.S. Imports, 1974-75-1978/79 (Nov.-Oct.)-Co/7f//7ued 

(Metric Tons) 

Item 1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 

Olives, dried: 

Greece 8 62 5 

Mexico — — — 

IVlorocco 439 323 589 

Spain — — 75 

Other - 1 - 

Total 447 386 669 

Olives, otherwise prepared or preserved, 

NSPF: 

Greece 264 495 722 

Mexico — — — 

Spain — — 3 

Other 79 117 127 

Total 343 612 852 

Olives, all categories: 

Greece 2,486 3,357 4,211 

Mexico 128 94 

Morocco 439 323 589 

Spain 31 ,033 36,909 34,032 

Other 784 892 949 

Total 34,870 41,575 39,781 



1977/78 



1978/79 



397 

51 

5 



457 



620 

18 
96 



734 



46,933 



5 

576 

5 



586 



935 

1 
160 



1,096 



3,297 


3,027 


337 


228 


397 


576 


42,094 


29,425 


808 


816 



34,072 



— Indicates negligible or none. 
Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 



U.S. Imports of Olive Oil (Edible and Inedible), by Country of Origin, 
Annual 1972-77, January/February 1979 

(In metric tons) 



Country of origin 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979' 

Edible: 

Argentina 

France 

Greece 

Italy 

Portugal 

Spain 

Tunisia 

Turkey 

Others 

Total^ 

Inedible: 

Portugal 

Spain 

Other 

Total' 

Grand totaP 30,594 27,296 24,364 21,634 28.303 24,633 28.087 27,306 

' Preliminary. ^ Includes 1,530 tons from Malaysia. 'Totals may not add due to rounding. " Includes 75 tons from France and 58 
tons from Turkey. * Includes 14 tons from France and 88 tons from Italy. " Includes 49 tons from Italy. ' Includes 15 tons from 
France and 45 tons from Italy. 

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce. 






241 


228 


112 


3 


46 


115 


17 


68 


328 


528 


1,140 


534 


109 


141 


263 


694 


377 


245 


473 


510 


278 


504 


611 


11,419 


9,802 


10.389 


9,465 


12.815 


10.559 


14.321 


14.497 


288 


305 


297 


340 


242 


273 


401 


389 


12,670 


13,671 


9.079 


9.070 


13.141 


10,391 


11.130 


10.774 


5.279 


1,900 


2.709 


674 


738 


1,065 


1,300 


670 


- 


350 


685 

















21 


222 


42 


320 


268 


' 1 ,802 


127 


25 


30,439 


27,196 


24.202 


21 ,594 


28.252 


24.522 


28.038 


27,246 


48 


21 




















97 


80 


" 20 


33 


9 


9 








10 





M42 


7 


42 


M02 


M9 


"60 


155 


101 


162 


40 


50 


112 


49 


60 



10 



Olives: Mexico's Area, Yield, and Production by States, 1960-1979 



Area Yield Production 



Year Baja California Baja California Baja California 

Sonora Mexico' Sonora Mexico' Sonera Mexico' 

Norte Sur Norte Sur Norte Sur 



Hectares - Kilograms per hectare Tons 



3,107 


3,000 


2,500 


600 


2,706 


7,044 


1,140 


45 


8,407 


3,126 


3,000 


2,301 


500 


2,708 


7,122 


1,125 


18 


8,464 


3,378 


3,000 


2,101 


610 


2,591 


7,248 


1,170 


25 


8,754 


3,593 


3,000 


2,500 


514 


2,653 


7,362 


1,810 


19 


9,532 


3,667 


3,300 


2,201 


602 


2,771 


8,187 


1,580 


50 


10,161 



1960 2,000 150 50 2,223 1,050 1,200 500 1,058 2,100 180 25 2,353 

1961 2,139 177 66 2,600 1,547 1,215 985 1,420 3,310 215 32 3,691 

1962 2,212 190 67 2,708 1,713 1,368 448 1,575 3,790 260 30 4,266 

1963 2,970 191 72 2,794 1,294 1,450 417 1,563 3,844 277 30 4,367 

1964 2,302 195 82 2,895 3,027 1,503 402 2,612 6,968 293 33 7,562 

1960-64 Avg. . 2,325 181 67 2,644 1,721 1,354 448 1,682 4,002 245 30 4,448 

1965 2,348 456 75 

1966 2,374 489 36 

1967 2,416 557 41 

1968 2,454 724 37 

1969 2,481 718 83 

1965-69 Avg. , 2,415 589 54 3,374 3,061 2,317 574 2,686 7,393 1,365 31 9,064 

1970 2,495 703 104 

1971 2,516 200 141 

1972 3,712 200 163 

1973 3,691 200 163 

1974 4,579 356 180 

1970-74 Avg. . 3,403 332 150 4,263 2,416 2,202 1,413 2,272 8,222 731 212 9,685 

1975 4,600 570 182 

1976 4,813 293 195 

1977 4,625 106 262 

1978^ 5,000 300 300 

1979' 5,000 300 400 6,000 2,000 1,500 8,750 2,333 10,000 450 3,500 14,000 

1975-79 Avg. . 4,808 314 268 5,673 1,775 1,019 6,414 1,925 8,534 320 1,719 10,919 

' Includes other states. ^ FAS estimates. 

Source: Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hodraulicos, Direccion General de Economia Agricola (DGEA, SARH). 



3,655 


3,100 


2,300 


700 


2,679 


7,735 


1,617 


73 


9,790 


3,240 


3,237 


2,000 


2,030 


2,922 


8,144 


400 


286 


9,467 


4,479 


3,071 


2,500 


1,450 


2,797 


1 1 ,400 


500 


236 


12,527 


4,449 


2,075 


2,700 


1,740 


2,025 


7,659 


540 


284 


9,010 


5,492 


1,341 


1,685 


1,000 


1,389 


6,170 


600 


180 


7,631 



5,596 


1,406 


1,035 


1,098 


1,363 


6,470 


590 


200 


7,630 


5,570 


1,860 


573 


1,000 


1,746 


8,952 


168 


195 


9,728 


5,299 


2,216 


2,302 


8,782 


2,498 


10,250 


244 


2,301 


13,236 


5,900 


1,400 


500 


8,000 


1,695 


7,000 


150 


2,400 


1 0,000 



11 



Olives: Mexico's Grower Prices and Value of Crop, by States, 1960-1979 

Grower Prices Value of Crop 

Mexican Pesos Per Kilogram U.S. Dollars Per Ton U.S. Dollars 

Year 

Baia Calif . . Baja Calif . . Baia Calif. 

Average <, Average ^ 

Sonera ., ., Sonora ., . ^, Sonora 

M » o Mexico ... _ Mexico m . <, 

Norte Sur Norte Sur Norte Sur 

Pesos Dollars - • - 1,000 Dollars 

1960 2.40 3.00 3.50 2.42 192 240 280 194 403 43 7 

1961 2.68 3.40 3.75 2.74 214 272 300 219 708 58 10 

1962 2.80 3.00 3.75 2.58 200 240 300 206 758 62 9 

1963 2.80 3.50 3.85 2.86 224 280 308 229 861 78 9 

1964 2.86 3.62 3.86 2.90 229 290 309 232 1,596 85 10 

1960-64 Avg. .. 2.70 3.30 3.74 2.70 212 264 299 216 865 65 9 

1965 2.90 3.70 3.70 3.02 232 296 296 242 1,634 337 133 

1966 2.92 3.00 3.85 2.93 234 240 308 234 1,667 270 55 

1967 2.60 2.70 3.50 2.63 208 216 280 210 1,508 253 70 

1968 2.60 2.75 3.55 2.64 208 220 284 211 1,531 398 54 

1969 3.00 3.50 3.87 3.08 240 280 310 246 1.965 422 15 

1965-69 Avg. .. 2.80 3.13 3.69 2.86 224 250 296 229 1,661 336 65 

1970 2.80 3.50 4.00 2.93 224 280 320 234 1,733 453 23 

1971 3.00 3.50 4.05 3.07 240 280 324 246 1,955 112 93 

1972 3.09 2.50 4.45 3.15 247 200 356 252 2,816 100 84 

1973 3.25 3.00 4.70 3.33 260 240 376 266 1,991 130 107 

1974 3.80 5.00 12.00 4.62 304 400 960 370 1,876 240 173 

1970-74 Avg. .. 3.19 3.50 5.84 3.42 255 280 467 274 2,074 207 96 

1975 3.80 8.00 6.30 4.27 304 640 504 342 1,967 378 101 

1976 6.50 7.94 6.30 6.49 286 350 278 286 2,560 59 54 

1977 6.50 10.00 5.06 6.28 286 441 223 277 2,932 108 513 

1978^ 8.00 9.00 8.00 7.80 352 396 352 344 2,464 59 845 

1979' 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 395 395 395 395 4,000 200 1,400 

1975-79 Avg. .. 6.76 8.79 6.93 6.77 325 444 350 329 2,785 161 583 

NOTE: One U.S. dollar equalled 12.5 pesos prior to 1977, 22.7 pesos from 1977 through 1978, and 22.8 in 1979. 

' Includes other states. ' FAS estimates. 

Source: Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos, Direccion General de Economia Agrlcoia (DGEA, SARH). 



Total 
Mexico' 



456 


808 


879 


1,000 


1,754 



979 

2,034 
1,981 
1,838 
2,011 
2,500 

2,073 

2,291 
2,329 
3,157 
2,397 
2,823 

2,599 

2,609 
2,782 
3,666 
3,440 
5,500 

3,599 



i: 



Table Olives: World Production, Crop Years 1974/75-1978/79 

(In 1,000 metric tons) 

Area and country 1974/75 1975/76 ^Q^Qm 

North America 

Mexico 7.2 7.6 7.4 

United States 49.4 58.1 68.0 

Total 56.6 65.7 75.4 

South America 

Argentina 22.5 29.0 25.0 

Brazil 1.0 1.0 1.0 

Chile 4.0 4.0 3.0 

Peru 10.5 10.5 10.0 

Total 38.0 44.5 39.0 

Europe 

Cyprus .7 3.0 1.0 

France 2.4 2.4 2.9 

Greece 67.3 95.7 54.1 

Italy 76.4 80.0 45.0 

Portugal 18.2 17.3 17.1 

Spain 93.0 142.0 177.4 

Turkey 145.0 118.0 150.0 

Yugoslavia .2 .7 .6 

Total 403.2 459.1 448.1 

Middle East 

Israel 15.0 3.5 14.5 

Jordan 6.7 10.0 19.0 

Lebanon 10.0 5.0 5.0 

Syria 38.3 23.7 25.0 

Total 70.0 42.2 63.5 

Africa 

Algeria 5.2 10.4 .8.0 

Egypt 6.0 8.0 8.0 

Libya .9 2.0 1.8 

Morocco 35.2 32.4 54.8 

Tunisia 5.2 7.5 8.0 

Total 52.5 60.3 80.6 

Other 9.3 9.1 9.4 

Grand total 629.6 680.9 716.0 

' Preliminary. 

Source: International Olive Oil Council, Madrid, and the Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. 



1977/78 



1978/79' 



8.5 
50.0 



58.5 



45.2 



442.3 



39.3 



73.8 



10.2 



669.3 



8.9 
55.0 



63.9 



29.0 


32.0 


1.0 


1.5 


3.5 


4.0 


11.7 


12.0 



49.5 



2.0 


1.8 


2.4 


2.0 


69.0 


83.0 


91.0 


75.0 


20.2 


21.0 


164.0 


183.0 


93.0 


160.0 


.7 


.8 



526.6 



4.8 


16.0 


5.5 


8.0 


5.0 


6.0 


24.0 


25.0 



55.0 



4.0 


8.0 


8.0 


6.5 


1.5 


1.5 


50.3 


56.6 


10.0 


8.0 



80.6 



9.8 



785.4 



13 



Table Olives: World Exports, Marketing Years 1974/75-1978/79 

(In 1,000 metric tons) 

Years beginning Nov. 1 

Area and country 

1974/75 1975/76 1976/77 

North America 

Mexico — — — 

United States 1.7 1.6 1.6 

Total 1.7 1.6 1.6 

South America 

Argentina 11.9 21.5 14.6 

Brazil - - - 

Chile .5 .5 - 

Peru — — — 

Total 12.4 22.0 14.6 

Europe 

Cyprus — .1 .1 

France' 2.4 2.5 3.0 

Greece 29.9 33.6 38.0 

Italy .7 .5 .5 

Portugal 2.3 2.1 3.2 

Spain 55.9 83.1 65.5 

Turkey .7 .8 5.0 

Yugoslavia — — — 

Total 91.9 122.7 115.3 

Middle East 

Israel .5 — .1 

Jordan 1.2 — 1.0 

Lebanon * .1 — — 

Syria 9.0 - - 

Total 10.8 - 1.1 

Africa 

Algeria 3.5 5.4 5.0 

Egypt - - - 

Libya — — — 

Morocco 18.9 24.5 48.3 

Tunisia .7 .8 2.0 

Total 23.1 30.7 55.3 

Other .3 .3 .4 

Grand total 140.2 177.3 188.3 

— Indicates negligible or none. 

' Forecast. ' Most exports represent transhipments. 

Source: International Olive Oil Council, Madrid, and the Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. 



1977/78 



1978/79' 



3.0 



3.0 



16.0 



16.0 



128.7 



36.2 

.6 



37.6 



.3 



186.0 



3.0 



3.0 



17.0 



17.0 



.1 


.2 


2.5 


3.4 


39.5 


45.5 


1.1 


1.0 


2.5 


2.5 


80.0 


85.0 


3.0 


10.0 



147.6 



1.8 



1.8 



4.2 



34.0 
1.0 



39.2 



.3 



208.9 



« U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1980— 310-947/GPA-4211 



14 



NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL LIBRARY 



1022368068 



NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL LIBRARV 



1022368068